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SP 208 - Extensional Tectonics of the Southwestern United States: A Perspective on Processes and Kinematics


Mayer, L., Ed. / EXTENSIONAL TECTONICS OF THE SOUTHWESTERN U.S.: A Perspective on Processes and Kinematics, GSA SP 208, Boulder, 1986, pb, 122 pages, - 3 -, $ 10

What are the driving forces of rifting? How do initial lithospheric conditions affect subsequent rifting? What are the linkages between plate forces and regional stresses? Do different lithospheric thinning models generate unique geophysical signatures? How does rifting relate to regional topography? What about detachment structures? Seven papers in this volume will help you gain a better understanding of continental rifting processes in general and in the Basin and Range and Mojave Desert provinces in particular.


1. Topographic constraints on models of lithospheric stretching of the Basin and Range Province, western U.S.
2. Involvement of deep crust in extension of Basin and Range Province
3. Thermal-Mechanical consequences of Basin and Range extension
4.Tertiary structural development of selected basins: Basin and Range Province, Northeast Nevada
5. Geometry of seismically active faults and crustal deformation with the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau transition in Utah
6. Patterns and modes of early Miocene crustal extension, central Mojave Desert, California
7. Processes of regional Tertiary extension in the western Cordillera: Insights from the metamorphic core complexes

SP 218 - Processes in Continental Lithospheric Deformation


Clark, S. P. Jr., Burchfiel, B. C. and Suppe, J. / PROCESSES IN CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERIC DEFORMATION, GSA SP 218, Boulder, 1988, pb, 207 pages, - 2 -, $ 10

A diverse collection of eight papers reflecting the full range of modern approaches to tectonics. Each paper displays a broad vision of some significant aspect of the Earth's crust. The first five papers are on regional tectonics and cover such significant segments of the Earth's crust as the Mediterranean (Alps and Carpathians), the central Andes, and the Canadian Cordillera. The remaining papers focus on key processes that shape continental crust, or attempt to interpret mountain belts in terms of simple mechanical models that incorporate the dominant phenomena such as rock strength, detachment zones, and erosion. This volume is dedicated to Dr. John Rodgers, retired Silliman Professor of Geology at Yale University, as was the 1985 symposium at which these were originally presented.


1. Axial projections and modes of crustal thickening, eastern Wopmay orogen, northwest Canadian Shield
2. The tectonics of the Central Andes; 30° to 33° S latitude
3. Mesozoic and early Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Canadian Cordillera
4. A possible Jurassic-Cretaceous transform system in the Alps, and the Carpathians
5. Plate kinematics and tectonics leading to the Alpine belt formation; A new analysis
6. Detachment faulting in continental extension; Perspectives from the Southwestern U.S. Cordillera
7. Mechanics, growth, and erosion of mountain belts
8. Some simple physical aspects of the support, structure, and evolution of mountain belts
9. Index


SP 222 - Geometries and Mechanisms of Thrusting, with Special Reference to the Appalachians

Mitra, G. and Wojtal, S. / GEOMETRIES AND MECHANISMS OF THRUSTING, with special reference to the Appalachians, Boulder, GSA SP 222, 1988, pb, 236 pages, - 3 -, $ 10

Nearly two decades have passed since the Cloos and Billings memorial volumes (Fisher et al., 1970; Zen et al., 1970), the now classic reports on Appalachian geology. Since then, there has been an increase of academic and industrial interest in the structure and evolution of fold-and-thrust belts, producing better understanding of these structures and spawning new ideas on how thrust structures develop. The aim of this volume is to provide, in a single source, much of this new work on thrust geometry and mechanisms and up-to-date, small-scale to regional-scale structural studies of fold-and-thrust belts. Most papers interpret structures within the Appalachian-Caledonian orogen.


1. The Moine thrust and the Scottish Caledonides
2. Nature of deformation in some fault rocks from Appalachian thrusts
3. Heat transfer and fault geometry in the Taconian thrust belt, western New England
4. The role of kinematics in the construction and analysis of geological cross sections in deformed terranes
5. Kinematics of deformation at a thrust fault ramp(?) from syntectonic fibers in pressure shadows
6. Structural evolution of folded thrusts and duplexes on a first-order anticlinorium in the Valley and Ridge Province of Pennsylvania
7. The North Mountain-Pulaski fault system and related thrust sheet structure
8. Relations between deformation of crystalline basement and sedimentary cover at the basement/cover transition zone of the Appalachian Blue Ridge Province
9. The Rome Formation décollement in the Mountain City window, Tennessee; A case for involvement of evaporites in the genesis of Max Meadows-type breccias
10. Critical evidence for southern Appalachian Valley and Ridge thrust sequence
11. Origin and palinspastic significance of a fault duplex near Cartersville, Georgia
12. Geometric and time relationships between thrusts in the crystalline southern Appalachians
13. Kinematic models of plane-roofed duplex styles
14. Sequential development of a frontal ramp, imbricates, and a major fold in the Kemmerer region of the Wyoming thrust belt
15. Discontinuities along thrust faults and the cleavage duplexes
16. Index

SP 230 - Terranes in the Circum-Atlantic Paleozoic Orogens


Dallmeyer, R. D. / TERRANES IN THE CIRCUM-ATLANTIC PALEOZOIC OROGENS, GSA SP 230, Boulder, 1989, pb, 277 pages, - 2 -, $ 10

Not just another "late-tectonic" reconstruction volume, this is a comprehensive geologic summary which enables regional syntheses. The authors describe initial efforts to apply terrane-tectonic concepts to the Paleozoic orogens of the circum-Atlantic region. Although similar studies are well-advanced in the younger orogens of the Western American Cordillera, application of these concepts in the older, more deeply eroded Palozoic orogens is much more complicated and requires consideration of some basic modifications of the terrane concepts as derived in the Cordillera. These modifications are detailed, making this a valuable reference guide for those attempting to carry out tectonic, stratigraphic, structural, and/or paleontologic correlations in the circum-Atlantic region. Indeed, this is the first truly comprehensive collection of papers treating the entire circum-Atlantic realm, including such previously untreated areas as West Africa, central Europe, and Svalbard. Each paper provides an in-depth summary of pertinent stratigraphic, paleontologic, and/or structural characteristics of each of the terranes described.


1. Caledonian terranes in Svalbard
2. Terranes and polyphase accretionary history in the Scandinavian Caledonides
3. Penobscottian-Grampian-Finnmarkian orogenies as indicators of terrane linkages
4. Pre-Alleghanian terrane tectonics in the British and Irish Caledonides
5. Suspect terrane definition in Anglesey, North Wales
6. Tectonostratigraphic units in the Variscan belt of central Europe
7. Pre-Alpine terranes and tectonic zoning in the eastern Alps
8. Major tectonostratigraphic units of the Bohemian Massif, Josef Chaloupsky
9. Variscan terranes in Morocco
10. Definition of tectonostratigraphic terranes in the Mauritanide, Bassaride, and Rokelide orogens, West Africa
11. Precambrian terranes of Benin-Nigeria and northeast Brazil and the Late Proterozoic south Atlantic fit
12. Northern Appalachian terranes and their accretionary history
13. Avalonian terranes and late Paleozoic tectonism in southeastern New England; Constraints and problems
14. Tectonostratigraphic terranes and their Paleozoic boundaries in the central and southern Appalachians
15. Contrasting accreted terranes in the southern Appalachian orogen and Atlantic-Gulf Coastal Plains and their correlations with West African sequences
16. Index


SP 232 - Tectonics of the Western Himalayas


Malinconico, L. L., Jr. and Lillie, R. J. / TECTONICS OF THE WESTERN HIMALAYAS, GSA SP 232, Boulder, 1989, pb, 320 pages, 1 pocket plate, - 1 -, $ 10

Here is new light on the overall crustal structure and tectonic evolution of the Himalayan collision zone, focusing on northwestern India and northern Pakistan. This complements previous Himalayan studies that generally dealt with the central part of the belt where collision processes were maximized. The articles on the western Himalayas allow a look at a youthful collisional belt where the collision is oblique, surficial features take an abrupt bend toward the west, and where an island-arc terrain (Kohistan/Ladakh) separates rocks of the Indian subcontinent from those of Asia. Observations are included on the geophysical, petrologic, structural, neotectonic, and stratigraphic data of both foreland and hinterland. An important feature is the use of various geochronological techniques to date sediments, convergence, and uplift. Inclusion of E. R. Gee's Salt Range maps at scale 1:250,000 provides both scientific and historical perspective.


1. Geochronology and temperature history of the Nanga ParbatHaramosh Massif, Pakistan
2. A petrologic record of the collision between the Kohistan Island-Arc and Indian Plate, northwest Himalaya
3. The Bhagirathi leucogranite of the High Himalaya (Garhwal, India); Age, petrogenesis, and tectonic implications
4. Metamorphic, magmatic, and tectonic evolution of the central Karakoram in the Biafo-Baltoro-Hushe regions of northern Pakistan
5. The Chilas Mafic- Ultramafic Igneous Complex; The root of the Kohistan Island Arc in the Himalaya of northern Pakistan
6. Overview of the geology and structure of the Salt Range, with observations on related areas of northern Pakistan
7. Early Pliocene uplift of the Salt Range; Temporal constraints on thrust wedge development, northwest Himalaya, Pakistan
8. Tectonic and geomorphic implications of Siwalik Group heavy minerals, Potwar Plateau Pakistan
9. Basement-cover imbrication south of the Main Mantle Thrust, north Pakistan
10. Trans-Himadri intracrustal fault and basement upwarps south of Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone
11. The northwestern Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Evidence for crustal uplift at the northwestern corner of the Indian Craton
12. tructural setting of the Skardu intermontane basin, Karkoram Himalaya, Pakistan
13. The northern suture in the Shigar Valley, Baltistan, northern Pakistan
14. Subsurface densities and lithospheric flexure of the Himalayan foreland in Pakistan
15. Crustal thickness estimates for the western Himalaya
16. Active faults of the Himalaya of India and Nepal
17. Zone of Late Quaternary deformation in the southern Peshawar Basin, Pakistan
18. Quaternary glacial chronology and neotectonics in the Himalaya of northern Pakistan
19. Chronostratigraphy of the upper Cenozoic Bunthang sequence and possible mechanisms controlling base level in Skardu intermontane basin
20. Index

SP 275 - The Acadian Orogeny: Recent Studies in New England, Maritime Canada, and the Autochthonous Foreland


Roy, D. C. and Skehan, J. W., Ed. / THE ACADIAN OROGENY: Recent Studies in New England, Maritime Canada, and the Autochthonous Foreland, GSA SP 275, Boulder, 1993, pb, 171 pages, - 2 -, $ 15

An anthology of papers summarizing recent structural, statigraphic, and paleomagnetic studies of large subregions of the northern Appalachians in New England and northeastern Canada where the Acadian Orogeny was first recognized and is most pervasive. In addition to presenting new geologic and geomagnetic data, the mid-Paleozoic plate tectonic implications of the orogeny are explored. Regions covered include the eastern townships and Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec, central New Hampshire, eastern Maine, Newfoundland, and the Acadian foreland of the autochthonous Appalachian basin. Overview papers cover the broad context of the Acadian orogenesis in North America and Europe, the Paleozoic biostratigraphy of the Acadian orogen, and the paleomagnetic constraints on the accretion of tectonic terranes.


Mid-Paleozoic Orogenesis in the North Atlantic. The Acadian Orogeny
Paleogeography, Accretionary History, and Tectonic Scenario: A Working Hypothesis for the Ordovician and Silurian Evolution of the Northern Appalachians
Comments on Cambrian-to-Carboniferous Biogeography and Its Implications for the Acadian Orogeny
The Sequence of Acadian Deformations in Central New Hampshire
Nature of the Acadian Orogeny in Eastern Maine
Acadian Deformations in the Southwestern Quebec Appalachians
Timing of the Deformation Events from Late Ordovician to Mid-Devonian in the Gaspé Peninsula
Acadian Orogeny in Newfoundland
Acadian Orogeny in West Newfoundland Definition, Character, and Significance
Stratigraphic Effects of the Acadian Orogeny in the Autochthonous Appalachian Basin

SP 310 - Late Holocene Alluvial Geomorphology of the Virgin River in the Zion National Park Area, Southwest Utah



The Virgin River, in the spectacular canyons of Zion National Park near the southwest margin of the Colorado Plateau, is well suited for geomorphic research; it has a relatively wide alluvial valley and is free flowing, retaining the presettlement discharge regime. The research described in Special Paper 310 focused on how variations of water and sediment load modify valley morphology. A specific goal was understanding the timing and causes of arroyo cutting—the catastrophic, widespread degradation of stream channels in the southwest United States beginning in the late 1800s. Large-scale surficial geologic maps portray the terraces and alluvial deposits. Dated by archaeologic context and by tree-ring methods, these deposits correlate in time with dated late Holocene alluvium of other streams on the southern Colorado Plateau. Relocated historic photographs show the channel before, during, and after arroyo cutting. Dendrohydrologic reconstruction of streamflow demonstrates that arroyo cutting occurred during unusually wet climate with large floods and was preceded by an interval of very dry climate.


1. Introduction
2. Geologic Setting of the Alluvial Valleys
3. Late Holocene Surficial Geology and Geomorphology
4. Floods and Historic Changes in the Channel of the Virgin River
5. Historic Photographs of the Virgin River
6. Streamflow History and Geomorphic Change of the Virgin River
7. Summary and Conclusions

SP 324 - Architecture of the Central Brooks Range Fold and Thrust Belt, Arctic Alaska


Oldow, J. S. and Lallemant, H. G. A., Ed. / ARCHITECTURE OF THE CENTRAL BROOKS RANGE FOLD AND THRUST BELT, ARCTIC ALASKA, GSA SP 324, Boulder, 1998, pb, 317 pages, - 1 -, $ 10

The 17 papers in this volume present the results of a decade of geological and geophysical research centered largely along a north-south transect through the central Brooks Range of Arctic Alaska. Investigations and results center on a comprehensive description of the rocks and their tectonic evolution from the foreland to the hinterland of the orogen; the geometry and kinematics of contractional and extensional structures, regional and local stratigraphic relations, thermochronology, and the deep crustal structure of the Brooks Range and parts of the North Slope; and detailed descriptions of the major lithotectonic assemblages composing the orogenic belt. This volume offers a unique perspective of a fold-thrust belt and should prove useful in the study of other contractional belts around the world.


Regional stratigraphy of the Brooks Range and North Slope, Arctic Alaska
Sedimentology and paleogeographic significance of Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian clastic rocks, Endicott Mountains allochthon, central Brooks Range, Alaska
Spatial variation in structural style, Endicott Mountains allochthon, central Brooks Range, Alaska
Out-of-sequence thrusting and structural continuity of the Endicott Mountains allochthon around the eastern end of the Doonerak window, central Brooks Range, Alaska
Structure and lithology of the lower Paleozoic Apoon assemblage, eastern Doonerak window, central Brooks Range, Alaska
Structural development and kinematic history of ramp-footwall contraction in the Doonerak multiduplex, central Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska
Stratigraphy and paleogeographic setting of the eastern Skajit allochthon, central Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska
Envelopment thrusting and the structure of the eastern Skajit allochthon, central Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska
Petrology of eclogite and associated high-pressure metamorphic rocks, south-central Brooks Range, Alaska
Constraints on the cooling history of the central Brooks Range, Alaska, from fission-track and 40Ar/39Ar analyses
Tertiary uplift of the Mt. Doonerak antiform, central Brooks Range, Alaska: Apatite fission-track evidence from the Trans-Alaska crustal transect
Geology and Mesozoic structural history of the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska

Tectonothermal evolution of metamorphic rocks in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska: Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar geochronology
Antithetic shear and the formation of back folds in the central Brooks Range fold and thrust belt, Alaska
Structural analysis of the Kobuk fault zone, north-central Alaska
Seismic profiling constraints on the evolution of the central Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska
Origin and tectonic evolution of the metamorphic sole beneath the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska
SP 330 - The Mid-Atlantic Piedmont: The Missing link of the Appalcachians


Valentino, D. W. and Gates, A. E., Ed. / THE MID-ATLANTIC PIEDMONT: THE MISSING LINK OF THE APPALACHIANS, GSA SP 330, Boulder, 1999, pb, 139 pages, - 1 -, $ 15

GSA and others have published many topical special volumes on northern and southern Appalachian tectonics. As critical advances in plate tectonics were applied to the rest of the Appalachians however, the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont was commonly neglected or included as an afterthought, making this part of the orogen a "missing link." Valentino and Gates have assembled a collection of papers that tie the central Appalachian Piedmont to the northern and southern regions by filling this void. Major themes include the impact of late Paleozoic dextral transpressive tectonism, the continuation of the Piedmont under the Atlantic coastal plain, and new results in the tectonothermal history of the Piedmont.


1. Continuation of Appalachian Piedmont under New Jersey Coastal Plain
2. Interaction between Paleozoic strike-slip and thrust shear zones in the Philadelphia structural block, central Appalachian Piedmont
3. The distribution of overprinting metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Wissahickon Group, southeastern Pennsylvania
4. Late Paleozoic dextral transpression in the crystalline core of the Pennsylvania reentrant
5. Crystalline bedrock of the lowermost Susquehanna Valley: Implications for the tectonic assembly of the central Appalachian Piedmont
6. Late Paleozoic deformation within the Pleasant Grove shear zone, Maryland: Results from 40Ar/39Ar dating of white mica
7. Petrology of the Baltimore Gneiss in the northeast Towson Dome, Maryland Piedmont
8. Alleghanian transpressional orogenic float in the Baltimore terrane, central Appalachian Piedmont




The Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), on the eastern Snake River Plain, occupies an arid geomorphic system that aggrades by closed-basin fluvial-lacustrine deposition and basaltic plains-volcanism. The area overlies the Snake River Aquifer, one of the largest and most dynamic bodies of subsurface fresh-water in North America, and lies in the wake of the Yellowstone Hot Spot, within the Basin and Range province. This is the first peer-reviewed comprehensive volume dealing with multidisciplinary geoscience research at a U.S. Department of Energy facility. The volume contains 19 papers that deal with environmental issues, bioremediation, hydrogeology, and regional geology. The interdisciplinary coverage of this research is a bridge between pure and applied geoscience in an environmentally critical area. The research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Idaho Universities Consortium, Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and the Idaho and U.S. Geological Surveys.
Topics covered by papers in this volume include Quaternary and Pliocene climate history preserved in lake beds within a tectonically underfilled and volcanically silled basin, the Big Lost Trough; stochastic simulation of basalt flow heterogeneity, which allows greater precision of future Snake River Plain subsurface hydrologic models; state-of-the art studies dealing with TCE degradation, tracer tests, and intrinsic bioremediation in layered basalt flows; modelling of thermal water beneath the eastern Snake River Plain; extensive drillhole information and subsurface data about the INEEL area, which allows an unusually precise calculation of recurrence and geometry of basaltic eruptions; a discussion of present aspects of petrogenesis of Snake River Plain basalts; and a modified view of Holocene paleoflood hydrogeology of the Big Lost River.


1. Introduction to the hydrogeology of the eastern Snake River Plain
2. Pliocene and Quaternary stratigraphic architecture and drainage systems of the Big Lost Trough, northeastern Snake River Plain, Idaho
3. Paleoenvironments of sedimentary interbeds in the Pliocene and Quaternary Big Lost Trough, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho
4. Subsurface volcanology at Test Area North and controls on groundwater flow
5. Sedimentologic and hydrologic characterization of surficial sedimentary facies in the Big Lost Trough, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, eastern Idaho
6. Late Quaternary highstands in the Mud Lake and Big Lost Trough subbasins of Lake Terreton, Idaho
7. Holocene paleoflood hydrology of the Big Lost River, western Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho
8. Tension cracks, eruptive fissures, dikes, and faults related to late Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic volcanism and implications for the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho
9. Morphology of inflated pahoehoe lavas and spatial architecture of their porous and permeable zones, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho
10. Geochemical correlations and implications for the magmatic evolution of basalt flow groups at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory
11. Accumulation and subsidence of late Pleistocene basaltic lava flows of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho
12. Open-system evolution of a single episode of Snake River Plain magmatism
13. Chemical characteristics of thermal water beneath the eastern Snake River Plain
14. Genesis of alteration of Quaternary basalts within a portion of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer
15. Stochastic simulation of aquifer heterogeneity in a layered basalt aquifer system, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho
16. Modeling groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the Snake River Plain aquifer: A stochastic approach
17. Recirculating tracer test in fractured basalt
18. Characterization of microbial isolates from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Test Area North aquifer: Identifying potential enzymatic pathways for toluene oxidation
19. Effect of basalt heterogeneity on intrinsic bioremediation processes in groundwater

SP 390 - Stone Decay in the Architectural Environment


Turkington, A. V., Ed. / STONE DECAY IN THE ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENT, GSA SP 390, Boulder, 2005, pb, 61 pages, - 1 -, $ 10

Some structures are constantly under threat from natural and human-induced decay processes, yet stone buildings, structures, and works of art remain a permanent feature in our cultural heritage. This volume presents recent research by an international group of geologists and geomorphologists on stone decay in the architectural environment, and it updates the latest theoretical and methodological advances in this field. The volume will be informative to earth scientists concerned with rock weathering in natural and urban locales, and it will be of benefit to those conservators, practitioners, scientists, and students whose interest lies at the interface between research and its application.


1. Urban stone decay: The great weathering experiment?
2. Can stone decay be chaotic?
3. Weathering of serpentine stone buildings in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, region: A geographic approach related to acidic deposition
4. Surface-recession weathering of marble tombstones: New field data and constraints
5. Petra revisited: An examination of sandstone weathering research in Petra, Jordan
6. Characterization of swelling in clay-bearing stone

SP 423 - The Evolution of the Rheic Ocean: From Avalonian-Cadomian Active  Margin to Alleghenian-Variscan Collision



This Special Paper includes 29 papers presented at several meetings of the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP) Project 497: “The Rheic Ocean: Its origin, evolution and correlatives.” The Rheic Ocean was one of the dominant oceans of the Paleozoic. Its origin can be traced to the Avalonian-Cadomian orogenies in the Latest Neoproterozoic. Closure of the Rheic Ocean began in the Lower Devonian and ended with the assembly of the supercontinent Pangaea. Its history involves North and South America, Africa, Baltica, and a number of peri-Gondwanan terranes. Papers mirror the history of the Rheic Ocean and document a chain of global events and produced orogenic belts that extend discontinuously from México to easternmost Europe. The ocean’s evolution was responsible for the formation of a wide variety of sedimentary basins; it significantly impacted the history of life, and it profoundly influenced contemporary paleoclimate and global environmental conditions. Fields of research involved in its study range widely and, as this book illustrates, include stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleontology, paleogeography, paleooceanography, igneous and metamorphic petrology, tectonics, structural geology, provenance analysis, geochemistry, geochronology, and paleomagnetism. Despite decades of research, aspects of the evolution of the Rheic Ocean remain controversial. With this book, the authors hope to answer a number of important questions and to encourage further research.

1. The assembly of West Gondwana—The view from the Rio de la Plata craton
2. Geodynamic evolution of the northwestern Paleo-Gondwanan margin in the Moroccan Atlas at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary
3. The continuum between Cadomian orogenesis and opening of the Rheic Ocean: Constraints from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating and analysis of plate-tectonic setting (Saxo-Thuringian zone, northeastern Bohemian Massif, Germany)
4. The Lausitz graywackes, Saxo-Thuringia, Germany—Witness to the Cadomian orogeny
5. Paleontological data from the Early Cambrian of Germany and paleobiogeographical implications for the configuration of central Perigondwana
6. The Variscan orogeny in the Saxo-Thuringian zone—Heterogenous overprint of Cadomian/Paleozoic Peri-Gondwana crust
7. Far Eastern Avalonia: Its chronostratigraphic structure revealed by SHRIMP zircon ages from Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian volcanic rocks (drill cores from Germany, Poland, and Denmark)
8. Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic signatures of Neoproterozoic–Early Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks in response to changing geotectonic regimes: A case study from the Barrandian area (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic)
9. The diversity and geodynamic significance of Late Cambrian (ca. 500 Ma) felsic anorogenic magmatism in the northern part of the Bohemian Massif: A review based on Sm-Nd isotope and geochemical data
10. Sm-Nd isotope and trace element study of Late Proterozoic metabasalts (“spilites”) from the Central Barrandian domain (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic)
11. Structural evolution of the Prague synform (Czech Republic) during Silurian times: An AMS, rock magnetism, and paleomagnetic study of the Svatý Jan pod Skalou dikes. Consequences for the nappes emplacement
12. Cadomian and Variscan metamorphic events in the Léon domain (Armorican Massif, France): PT data and EMP monazite dating
13. U-Pb depositional age for the upper Barrios Formation (Armorican Quartzite facies) in the Cantabrian zone of Iberia: Implications for stratigraphic correlation and paleogeography
14. Contrasting mantle sources and processes involved in a peri-Gondwanan terrane: A case study of pre-Variscan mafic intrusives from the autochthon of the Central Iberian Zone
15. Tectonic evolution of the upper allochthon of the Órdenes complex (northwestern Iberian Massif): Structural constraints to a polyorogenic peri-Gondwanan terrane
16. Crustal growth and deformational processes in the northern Gondwana margin: Constraints from the Évora Massif (Ossa-Morena zone, southwest Iberia, Portugal)
17. The Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary in the Mediterranean subprovince
18. Avalonian and Baltican terranes in the Moesian Platform (southern Europe, Romania, and Bulgaria) in the context of Caledonian terranes along the southwestern margin of the East European craton
19. Crete and the Minoan terranes: Age constraints from U-Pb dating of detrital zircons
20. Geological evolution of middle to late Paleozoic rocks in the Avalon terrane of northern mainland Nova Scotia, Canadian Appalachians: A record of tectonothermal activity along the northern margin of the Rheic Ocean in the Appalachian-Caledonide orogen
21. Vestige of the Rheic Ocean in North America: The Acatlán Complex of southern México
22. Provenance of the Granjeno Schist, Ciudad Victoria, México: Detrital zircon U-Pb age constraints and implications for the Paleozoic paleogeography of the Rheic Ocean
23. Ordovician calc-alkaline granitoids in the Acatlán Complex, southern México: Geochemical and geochronologic data and implications for the tectonics of the Gondwanan margin of the Rheic Ocean
24. Ordovician–Devonian oceanic basalts in the Cosoltepec Formation, Acatlán Complex, southern México: Vestiges of the Rheic Ocean?
25. P-T-t constraints on exhumation following subduction in the Rheic Ocean from eclogitic rocks in the Acatlán Complex of southern México
26. Life and death of a Cambrian–Ordovician basin: An Andean three-act play featuring Gondwana and the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane
27. A Late Ordovician ice sheet in South America: Evidence from the Cancañiri tillites, southern Bolivia
28. Sedimentary basins in the southwestern Siberian craton: Late Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian rifting and collisional events
29. Aluminum phosphate in Proterozoic metaquartzites: Implications for the Precambrian oceanic P budget and development of life

SP 436 - Formation and Applications of the Sedimentary Record in Arc Collision Zones


Draut, A. E., Clift, P. D., and Scholl, D. W. / FORMATION AND APPLICATIONS OF THE SEDIMENTARY RECORD IN ARC COLLISION ZONES, GSA 436, Boulder, 2008, pb, 435 pages, - 1 -, $ 15

Inspired by a GSA Penrose Conference held in 2005 (cosponsored by the International Association of Sedimentologists and the British Sedimentological Research Group), the 17 papers in this volume explore sedimentary environments in arc collision zones and their utility in recording the evolution of modern and ancient convergent margins. The first set of papers in the collection focuses on formation and evolution of the sedimentary record in arc settings and arc collision zones, concentrating on modern intra-oceanic examples. Papers include studies of flexural modeling and factors that affect development of siliciclastic and carbonate deposits around modern arcs. The second half of the volume presents new applications of arc sedimentary records. These relate primarily to constraining tectonic events in the evolution of arc systems, but also concern the links among tectonic uplift, collision, and geomorphic and climatic feedback mechanisms in arc collision zones.


1. Preservation of forearc basins during island arc–continent collision: Some insights from the Ordovician of western Ireland
2. Basin formation by volcanic arc loading
3. Cenozoic arc processes in Indonesia: Identification of the key influences on the stratigraphic record in active volcanic arcs
4. Carbonate-platform facies in volcanic-arc settings: Characteristics and controls on deposition and stratigraphic development
5. Sediment waves in the Bismarck Volcanic Arc, Papua New Guinea
6. The Lichi Mélange: A collision mélange formation along early arcward backthrusts during forearc basin closure, Taiwan arc-continent collision
7. Oblique subduction in island arc collision setting: Unique sedimentation, accretion, and deformation processes in the Boso TTT-type triple junction area, NW Pacific
8. The West Crocker formation of northwest Borneo: A Paleogene accretionary prism
9. Temporal changes in the composition of Miocene sandstone related to collision between the Honshu and Izu arcs, central Japan
10. Cenozoic volcanic arc history of East Java, Indonesia: The stratigraphic record of eruptions on an active continental margin
11. New constraints on the sedimentation and uplift history of the Andaman-Nicobar accretionary prism, South Andaman Island
12. Post-collisional collapse in the wake of migrating arc-continent collision in the Ilan Basin, Taiwan
13. The Guerrero Composite Terrane of western Mexico: Collision and subsequent rifting in a supra-subduction zone
14. Tectonic architecture of an arc-arc collision zone, Newfoundland Appalachians
15. The Catalina Schist: Evidence for middle Cretaceous subduction erosion of southwestern North America
16. Sedimentary response to arc-continent collision, Permian, southern Mongolia
17. Links among mountain building, surface erosion, and growth of an accretionary prism in a subduction zone — An example from southwest Japan
18. Index


SP 473 - Geology and Geoarchaeology of the Black Sea Region: Beyond the Flood Hypothesis


Buynevich, I. V.,, Ed. / GEOLOGY AND GEOARCHAEOLOGY OF THE BLACK SEA REGION: BEYOND THE FLOOD HYPOTHESIS, GSA SP 473, Boulder, 2011, pb, 196 pages, - 1 -, $ 10

Contributors from twelve countries wrote the twelve chapters in this Special Paper, and they address a range of topics, including climatic and hydrologic modeling, paleogeographic reconstruction of Late Quaternary landscapes, palynology and paleoclimate reconstruction, and geoarchaeological studies, both onshore and offshore. The volume serves as a timely reference for continuing research in a region harboring a number of newly independent states that are now faced with population pressure and a variety of environmental issues.


1. Surface runoff to the Black Sea from the East European Plain during Last Glaciation Maximum–Late Glacial time
2. Modeling extreme Black Sea and Caspian Sea levels of the past 21,000 years with general circulation models
3. Assessment of the Black Sea water-level fluctuations since the Last Glacial Maximum
4. Rapid Holocene sea-level and climate change in the Black Sea: An evaluation of the Balabanov sea-level curve
5. Global climate change and sea-level fluctuations in the Black and Caspian Seas over the past 200 years
6. Paleogeography of the Pontic Lowland and northwestern Black Sea shelf for the past 25 k.y.
7. Nonpollen palynomorphs: Indicators of salinity and environmental change in the Caspian–Black Sea–Mediterranean corridor
8. Climatic and environmental oscillations in southeastern Ukraine from 30 to 10 ka, inferred from pollen and lithopedology
9. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoenvironments of Crimea: Pollen, soils, geomorphology, and geoarchaeology
10. Bedforms, coastal-trapped waves, and scour process observations from the continental shelf of the northern Black Sea
11. Archaeological oceanography and environmental characterization of shipwrecks in the Black Sea
12. Pontic-Baltic pathways for invasive aquatic species: Geoarchaeological implications

SP 478 - Volcanism and Evolution of African Lithosphere


Beccalura, L.,, Ed. / VOLCANISM AND EVOLUTION OF THE AFRICAN LITHOSPHERE, GSA SP 478, Boulder, 2011, pb, 331 pages, - 1 -, $ 10

The distribution of volcanism in the African plate is the surface expression of a variety of processes, many of which are poorly understood, involving interaction between the lithosphere and the underlying convective mantle. Despite the maturity of the plate tectonic paradigm, our knowledge of the processes involved in the breakup of continents and the formation of new ocean basins remains limited. The African Rift system provides a unique natural laboratory to study the transition from continental breakup to seafloor spreading. Thus, it is important to explore the similarities among the volcanic provinces of the Saharan zone, Cameroon volcanic line, Angola and Namibia, and the East African Rift system. The aim of this volume is to bring together recent and updated contributions on African volcanism (and associated mantle xenoliths), providing multidisciplinary contexts that include volcanology, geochemistry, petrology, geophysics, and structural geology, for a better understanding of the geological evolution of the African lithosphere.


1. Late Mesozoic to Quaternary intraplate magmatism and its relation to the Neoproterozoic lithosphere in NE Africa—New data from lower-crustal and mantle xenoliths from the Bayuda volcanic field, Sudan
2. Holocene opening directions along the axes of the Red Sea (Afar) and Main Ethiopian Rifts: An overview
3. The upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly beneath Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania: Constraints on the origin of the African superswell in eastern Africa and plate versus plume models of mantle dynamics
4. The Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE): Probing the transition from continental rifting to incipient seafloor spreading
5. Peridotite xenoliths from Ethiopia: Inferences about mantle processes from plume to rift settings
6. Evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the East African Rift in Tanzania and its potential signatures in rift magmas
7. Petrology and geochemistry of alkaline lava series, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: New constraints on petrogenetic processes
8. Trace-element distribution between coexisting aqueous fumarole condensates and natrocarbonatite lavas at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania
9. Cameroon Line alkaline magmatism (central Africa): A reappraisal
10. Mineralogical and geochemical fingerprints of mantle metasomatism beneath Nyos volcano (Cameroon volcanic line)
11. Dolomitic volcanism in Zambia: Cr and K signatures and comparisons with other dolomitic melts from the mantle
12. Post-Paleozoic magmatism in Angola and Namibia: A review
13. Is the African cratonic lithosphere wet or dry?
14. New 40Ar-39Ar ages and petrogenesis of the Massif d'Ambre volcano, northern Madagascar
15. Metasomatism versus host magma infiltration: A case study of Sal mantle xenoliths, Cape Verde Archipelago
16. Magmatic evidence for African mantle propagation into the southern Tyrrhenian backarc region

SP 494 - New Perspectives on Rio Grande Rift Basins: From Tectonics to Groundwater


Hudson, M. R. and Grauch, V. J. S. (Tien), Ed. / NEW PERSPECTIVES ON RIO GRANDE RIFT BASIN: FROM TECTONICS TO GROUNDWATER, GSA SP 494, Boulder, 2013, pb, 500 pages, cd (in pocket), - 1 -, $ 20

Extending from Colorado, USA, on the north to the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, on the south, the Rio Grande rift divides the Colorado Plateau on the west from the interior of the North American craton on the east. This volume focuses on the Rio Grande rift’s upper crustal basins and is organized geographically with study areas progressing from north to south. Eighteen chapters cover a variety of topics, including sedimentation history, rift basin geometries and the influence of older structure on rift basin evolution, faulting and strain transfer within and among basins, relations of magmatism to rift tectonism, and basin hydrogeology.


1. Evolution of ancient Lake Alamosa and integration of the Rio Grande during the Pliocene and Pleistocene
2. Provenance of volcanic clasts from the Santa Fe Group, Culebra graben of the San Luis Basin, Colorado: A guide to tectonic evolution
3. Late Miocene–Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley–Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado
4. Geophysical constraints on Rio Grande rift structure in the central San Luis Basin, Colorado and New Mexico
5. Syndepositional deformation and provenance of Oligocene to Lower Miocene sedimentary rocks along the western margin of the Rio Grande rift, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico
6. Deformational and erosional history for the Abiquiu and contiguous area, north-central New Mexico: Implications for formation of the Abiquiu embayment and a discussion of new geochronological and geochemical analysis
7. Three-dimensional finite-element modeling of fault interactions in rift-scale normal fault systems: Implications for the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift of north-central New Mexico
8. Structure and tectonic evolution of the eastern Española Basin, Rio Grande rift, north-central New Mexico
9. Chronology of volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation near the western boundary fault of the Española Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico
10. Multi-stage Laramide deformation in the area of the southern Santa Fe embayment (Rio Grande rift), north-central New Mexico
11. Shallow groundwater geochemistry in the Española Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: Evidence for structural control of a deep thermal source
12. Upper Neogene tephrochronologic correlations of the Española Basin and Jemez Mountains volcanic field, northern Rio Grande rift, north-central New Mexico
13. Geophysical constraints on Rio Grande rift structure and stratigraphy from magnetotelluric models and borehole resistivity logs, northern New Mexico
14. Oblique transfer of extensional strain between basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: Fault kinematic and paleostress constraints
15. Climatic controls on nonmarine depositional sequences in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, north-central New Mexico
16. New perspectives on the geometry of the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: Insights from geophysical models of rift-fill thickness
17. Upper crustal structure of the southern Rio Grande rift: A composite record of rift and pre-rift tectonics
18. Tascotal Mesa transfer zone—An element of the Border Corridor transform system, Rio Grande rift of West Texas and adjacent Mexico

SP 498 - Understanding Open-Vent Volcanism and Related Hazards


Rose, W. I.,, Ed. / UNDERSTANDING OPEN-VENT VOLCANISM AND RELATED HAZARDS, GSA SP 498, Boulder, 2013, 230 pages, - 1 -, $ 10

Volcanic hazards work in developing countries is evolving and is increasingly done by scientists and engineers in home countries. At the same time, scientists in the developed world, where volcanic hazards may not be as immediate, are eager to participate in collaborative efforts, especially to highlight new tools. The lure of working at sites where there is diverse volcanic activity is strong, and collaborative science provides support for infrastructure development in home countries. Experience participating in international collaborative work during real volcanic crises is especially valuable to young scientists engaged in graduate and postdoctoral studies. This volume is the third GSA Special Paper this decade to focus on Central American volcanic hazards, and these chapters demonstrate continued maturation of international hazards work.


1. A 50 yr eruption of a basaltic composite cone: Pacaya, Guatemala
2. Crater lake evolution at Santa Ana Volcano (El Salvador) following the 2005 eruption
3. Continuous subsidence associated with the long-lasting eruption of Arenal Volcano (Costa Rica) observed by dry-tilt stations
4. A pilot GPS study of Santa Ana Volcano (Ilamatepec) and Coatepeque caldera, El Salvador
5. Gravity and geodesy of Concepción Volcano, Nicaragua
6. An analysis of the seismic activity of Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico, associated with the eruptive period of December 2002 to February 2003: Looking for precursors
7. Temporal changes in eruptive behavior identified with coda wave interferometry and seismo-acoustic observations at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala
8. Insights into explosion dynamics and the production of ash at Stromboli from samples collected in real-time, October 2009
9. Large-volume Barriles and Caisán debris avalanche deposits from Volcán Barú, Panama
10. Hazards related to lava tubes and caves in the Sierra Chichinautzin monogenetic volcanic field (México)
11. Estimation of tephra-fall and lahar hazards at Hudson Volcano, southern Chile: Insights from numerical models

12. Explosive volcanic history and hazard zonation maps of Boquerón Volcano (San Salvador volcanic complex, El Salvador)

SP 499 - Understanding Open-Vent Volcanism and Related Hazards


Anderson, R. E., Ed. / NEOGENE DEFORMATION BETWEEN CENTRAL UTAH AND THE MOJAVE DESERT, GSA SP 499, Boulder, 2013, pb, 94 pages, - 1 -, $ 10

This book is a must-read for researchers interested in extensional tectonics in general and the Neogene tectonics of the Basin and Range in particular, because it challenges, on the basis of more than 50 years of field studies, the existing paradigm of province-wide uniformly large extension and replaces it with a model integrating extension with extension-normal shortening-both as primary strains. The first chapter takes the reader on two journeys southwestward from central Utah through the Lake Mead area: the first to emphasize the lack of uniformly distributed or integrated extension and the second to highlight left-lateral shear at 13 localities along the east margin of the Basin and Range that is kinematically compatible with right-lateral shear along the west margin. The compatibility provides a basis for understanding the extreme Neogene tectonics of the Lake Mead area. The second chapter summarizes multifaceted field evidence from the well-studied eastern Lake Mead area as a focused example of the need for a complete revision of the extensional paradigm.


1. Analysis of Neogene deformation between Beaver, Utah, and Barstow, California: Suggestions for altering the extensional paradigm

2. On the importance of non-uniform tilt, strike slip, and hydrogeology in shaping the Neogene tectonics of the eastern Lake Mead area
SP 503 - Through the end of the Cretaceous in the type locality of the Hell Creek Formation in Montana and adjacent areas



For over a century, the Hell Creek and Fort Union formations and their constituent fossil biotas have captivated geologists and paleontologists alike. In Montana and adjacent areas, these rocks have become renowned as the type locality for Tyrannosaurus rex and the epicenter for debate surrounding the mass extinction of dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The chapters in this volume represent a surge of field and laboratory research activity that illustrates the impacts of new and refined methods and tools. In tandem, the research questions have evolved to take advantage of the increased precision, quality, and quantity of the data, from determinations of paleoecologies to assessment of ontogenetic sequences, patterns of sedimentation, and basin-level intraformational correlations. Together, the chapters in this volume are a major step forward in the quest to mine the rich lode of geologic and biologic history preserved in the strata bounding the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.


1. From Tyrannosaurus rex to asteroid impact: Early studies (1901–1980) of the Hell Creek Formation in its type area
2. Context, naming, and formal designation of the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation lectostratotype, Garfield County, Montana
3. Assessing the relationships of the Hell Creek–Fort Union contact, Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, and Chicxulub impact ejecta horizon at the Hell Creek Formation lectostratotype, Montana
4. Magnetostratigraphy of the Hell Creek and lower Fort Union Formations in northeastern Montana
5. Carbon isotope stratigraphy and correlation of plant megafossil localities in the Hell Creek Formation of eastern Montana
6. A florule from the base of the Hell Creek Formation in the type area of eastern Montana: Implications for vegetation and climate
8. Euselachians from the freshwater deposits of the Hell Creek Formation of Montana

SP 507 - Uplift Mechanisms and the History of the Tibetan Plateau



Defining the mechanisms responsible for topographic growth of the Tibetan Plateau has challenged geoscientists for decades. Deformation histories, sediment accumulation records, and thermochronology results suggest that plateau construction is likely the result of a protracted history of deformation that initiated before and continued throughout the Cenozoic India-Asia collision. However, key questions remain. What was the relative importance and magnitudes of pre-Cenozoic, Paleogene, and Neogene shortening? Has elevation gain in Tibet been punctuated or continuous? Did the Tibetan Plateau experience a shift in deformation kinematics during the Cenozoic and, if so, what were the driving mechanisms? How have tectonics and climate interacted during construction of the Tibetan Plateau? Advances in our understanding of these issues can be found in this volume.


Early Cretaceous to present latitude of the central proto-Tibetan Plateau: A paleomagnetic synthesis with implications for Cenozoic tectonics, paleogeography, and climate of Asia
Tectonics and topographic evolution of Namche Barwa and the easternmost Lhasa block, Tibet
Northern Lhasa thrust belt of central Tibet: Evidence of Cretaceous–early Cenozoic shortening within a passive roof thrust system?
Mesozoic tectonic history and lithospheric structure of the Qiangtang terrane: Insights from the Qiangtang metamorphic belt, central Tibet
Structure and detrital zircon geochronology of the Domar fold-thrust belt: Evidence of pre-Cenozoic crustal thickening of the western Tibetan Plateau
Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau
Timing and spatial patterns of basin segmentation and climate change in northeastern Tibet

SP 508 - Coastline and Dune Evolution along the Great Lakes


Fisher, T. G. and Hansen, E. C. / COASTLINE AND DUNE EVOLUTION ALONG THE GREAT LAKES, GSA Special Paper 508, Boulder, 2014, pb, 228 pages, - 1 -. $ 10

The 17,500 km of Great Lakes' shoreline is North America's "third coast." This coast has been the setting for a number of classic studies in coastal geomorphology and Quaternary geology, especially on the subjects of coastal dunes and the effects of deglaciation and isostatic rebound on lakes and coasts. In the past decade and a half, there has been a revival of interest in these processes along the Great Lakes. This volume includes an interdisciplinary mix of papers spanning a variety of temporal scales and offering a substantive overview of this recent research. The majority of the papers investigate the relationship between dune activity, lake levels, and climate. In addition to offering insights into coastal processes in general, the data presented in this paper could help inform decisions on how to manage and mitigate the human impact on this fragile natural environment.


1. A previously unrecognized path of early Holocene base flow and elevated discharge from Lake Minong to Lake Chippewa across eastern Upper Michigan
2. The contemporary elevation of the peak Nipissing phase at outlets of the upper Great Lakes
3. Late Holocene coastal development along the southern shore of Lake Michigan determined by strategic dating of stabilized parabolic dunes and wetlands of the Tolleston Beach
4. Late Holocene dune development and shift in dune-building winds along southern Lake Michigan
5. Dune formation on late Holocene sandy bay barriers along Lake Michigan’s Door Peninsula: The importance of increased sediment supply following the Nipissing and Algoma high lake-level phases
6. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior
7. Sand in lakes and bogs in Allegan County, Michigan, as a proxy for eolian sand transport
8. Elucidating paleo dune activity and timing from wetlands in the lee of coastal sand dunes, Grand Mere Lakes, Michigan
9. Temporally constrained eolian sand signals and their relationship to climate, Oxbow Lake, Saugatuck, Michigan 10. The role of extratropical cyclones in shaping dunes along southern and southeastern Lake Michigan
11. Short- and long-term perspectives on the evolution of a Lake Michigan foredune
12. Using remote sensing and geospatial analysis to understand changes to Lake Michigan dunes

SP 511 - The Origin, Evolution, and Environmental Impact of Oceanic Large Igneous Provinces



The origin, evolution, and environmental impact of large igneous provinces (LIPs) represents a topic of high scientific importance because the magmatism associated with these features cannot be directly related to plate tectonics, and because the eruption of flood basalts may have global environmental consequences. Oceanic LIPs are even more poorly understood due to their relative inaccessibility. This volume takes a multidisciplinary approach to understanding LIP origin, evolution, and environmental impact in ocean basins. Papers that focus on plate tectonic reconstructions, petrologic and geophysical investigations of various LIPs, and sedimentological and micropaleontological evidence of syn-LIP sediments are presented. Precious materials and data from dredging cruises and scientific ocean drilling expeditions have made this volume possible.


1. Petrology, geochemistry, and ages of lavas from Northwest Hawaiian Ridge volcanoes
2. Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the evolution of the Azores Plateau


3. Noble gas evidence for the presence of recycled material in magma sources of the Shatsky Rise
4. Boron and chlorine contents of basalts from the Shatsky Rise, IODP Expedition 324: Implications for the alteration of oceanic plateaus
5. Reorganization of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction in the Late Jurassic: Tectonic events before the formation of the Shatsky Rise
6. The Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau structure from two-dimensional multichannel seismic reflection profiles and implications for oceanic plateau formation
7. Application of the two-dimensional continuous wavelet transforms to imaging of the Shatsky Rise plateau using marine seismic data
8. Paleomagnetism of igneous rocks from the Shatsky Rise: Implications for paleolatitude and oceanic plateau volcanism
9. Lithium isotope evidence for magmatic assimilation of hydrothermally influenced crust beneath oceanic large igneous provinces


10. Tectonic reconstructions in magnetic quiet zones: Insights from the greater Ontong Java Plateau
11. Topographic expression of the Danger Islands Troughs and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Manihiki Plateau, western equatorial Pacific Ocean
12. Homogenization of magmas from the Ontong Java Plateau: Olivine-spinel compositional evidence
13. Alkalic magmatism in the Lyra Basin: A missing link in the late-stage evolution of the Ontong Java Plateau

14. Isotopic evidence for a link between the Lyra Basin and Ontong Java Plateau


15. Environmental consequences of Ontong Java Plateau and Kerguelen Plateau volcanism
16. Geochemistry of an Aptian bedded chert succession from the deep Pacific basin: New insights into Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event (OAE)1a
17. Intersite discrepancy in the amplitude of marine negative δ13C excursion at the onset of early Aptian oceanic anoxic event 1a: Reconciliation through Sr isotopic screening of peculiar diagenetic overprint on the Pacific reference section (Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 463)
SP 516 - Caves and Karst Across Time


Feinberg, J. M., Gao, Y., and Alexander, E. C. / CAVES AND KARST ACROSS TIME, GSA SP 516, Boulder, 2016, pb, 300 pages, - 1 -, $ 10

Appreciation, knowledge, and understanding of cave and karst systems have evolved dramatically since the creation of the Geological Society of America in 1888. Caves are now widely recognized as important geological features and karst as a distinctive and significant geologic system that covers about 20% of the planet's land surface. Karst aquifers are the world's most productive yet vulnerable groundwater systems, serving as the sole or primary water supply for more than one billion people worldwide. Karst systems have evolved dynamically across time, reflecting changes in climate and regional tectonism, and the subsequent crustal scale hydrologic responses invoked by these processes. We are now aware of the complexity of groundwater flow within karst and epikarst systems, and are striving to link our understanding of such heterogeneous flow processes to contamination studies and hazard assessment. This Special Paper highlights the changes in the study and application of cave and karst systems since GSA's origin, while looking ahead to future advancements.


1. The science of caves and karst: From the beginning of the Geological Society of America to 1960
2. Science of caves and karst: A half century of progress
3. Karst mapping in the United States: Past, present, and future
4. Historical review and forward view of cave and karst research in Texas

5. Morphometric analysis of cave patterns using fractal indices
6. Geologic history of the Black Hills caves, South Dakota
7. Depth and timing of calcite spar and “spar cave” genesis: Implications for landscape evolution studies

8. The importance of advection for CO2 dynamics in the karst critical zone: An approach from dimensional analysis
9. Initial pipe development within epikarst microfractures
10. On the efficacy of monitoring wells in karstic carbonate aquifers
11. Assessing structural control on groundwater flow in the Morrell Cave springshed, Sullivan County, Tennessee
12. Geochemistry of cave pools connected to an alpine epikarst—Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah
13. Analysis of hydrologic and geochemical time-series data at James Cave, Virginia: Implications for epikarst influence on recharge in Appalachian karst aquifers

14. Caves, hills, and caches: The importance of karst landscapes for the Prehispanic and contemporary Maya
15. Microclimate and niche constructionism in tropical bat caves: A case study from Mount Elgon, Kenya

16. High-resolution rainfall records for middle and late Holocene based on speleothem annual UV fluorescent layers integrated with stable isotopes and U/Th dating, Raccoon Mountain Cave, Tennessee
17. Middle Pleistocene glacial outwash in poljes of the Dinaric karst
18. Long-distance sediment transport and episodic resedimentation of Pennsylvanian dust (eolian silt) in cave passages of the Mississippian Leadville Limestone, southwestern Colorado
19. Paleomagnetic constraints on the Atapuerca karst development (N Spain)

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